Vascular bile cannulation: Mini-pigs
Mini-pigs are ideal models to study the safety and metabolism of new drugs. For dermally administered compounds, mini-pigs have skin that is physiologically similar to human, and for orally administered compounds, their GI tract is of similar pH to humans. However, mini-pig vasculature is situated deeper under the subcutaneous tissue and can be difficult to locate when sampling blood. Cannulation of the saphenous vein of mini-pigs is a more sensitive sampling technique.
Vascular bile cannulation: Rat & Mouse
There are many ways to dose and sample rodents. If frequent sampling or continuous infusion dosing is required, then cannulation of the animals may be more sensitive. Cannulation reduces the need for restrainment and allows for free movement during dosing.
The use of a pin-port mechanism allows rodents to be group-housed during recovery phases and when not directly being dosed or sampled. It also provides a robust method of obtaining blood samples for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics or biomarker analysis.